Bangkok: State of Environment 2003
This SoE report presents the key priority issues of Bangkok, which are analyzed following the "pressure-state-impact-response" (PSIR) framework. The key environmental issues of Bangkok City continue to be air quality, water quality management, solid and hazardous waste management, land subsidence, and noise pollution, as with the first report. This report states that the increase in economic activities and growth has contributed significant pressure on land, quality of water and air, level of noise and status of solid waste generation. Surface water quality is found to be at a critical level in comparison to the national standard. Around 2.5 million cubic meter of effluents is discharged per day in the canals and river; Households and communities generate 75 percent of this waste. Around 39 cases of acute diarrhea have been reported in 2002. Over use of ground water for a long time has adversely affected the level of the ground water table, subsequently intensifying the land subsidence problem. Increase of 0.29 million number of land transportation vehicles between 2000 and 2002 in Bangkok and consumption of 39.9 percent of total fuel used in Thailand have put additional pressure on the quality of city air. Some of the indicators of air quality have been occasionally found to exceed the standards. There has also been an increase of ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide levels in few places. The increase in respiratory diseases has been evident especially during dry season. Solid waste remains a major issue for Bangkok city. Electronic wastes from computers, mobile phones and electronic appliances, and infectious waste from hospital show a rising trend. Solid waste (garbage) generation trend is found to be increasing from 3,260 tons to 9,472 tons per day between 1985 and 2002 respectively.
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