Once Burned, Twice Shy? Lessons Learned from the 1997-98 El Niño

United Nations Environment Programme ; United Nations University ; National Center for Atmospheric Research ; World Meteorological Organization ; International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2001)

This assessment reviewed forecasts and impacts of the 1997-98 El Niño, as well as the climate-related early warning and natural disaster preparedness systems in the following locations in order to improve their ENSO (El Niflo-Southern Oscillation) and other climate-related coping mechanisms; Cuba, Costa Rica, Panama Canal, Ecuador, Peru, Paraguay, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Bangladesh, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Fiji. Based on the lessons drawn from these 16 studies, the project identified research and policy needs and presented ideas for developing regional and national disaster preparedness plans for ENSO's warm (El Niño) and cold (La Nifla) events and their impacts.

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