Arctic Report Card 2015

M. O. Jeffries, J. Richter - Menge, , J. E. Overland, Eds., 2015 (2015)

Maximum sea ice extent on 25 February was 15 days earlier than average and lowest value on record (1979 - present). Minimum ice extent in September was 4th lowest on record. Sea Ice continues to be younger and thinner: InFebruary and March 2015 there was twice as much first-year ice as thee was 30 years ago. Changes in sea ice alone are having profound effects on the marine ecosystem (fishes, walruses, primary production) and sea surface temperatures.