Global International Waters Assessment: Indonesian Seas, GIWA Regional Assessment 57
This report presents the GIWA assessment of the Indonesian Seas region, which comprises some 18 000 islands, is geologically and topographically diverse, and lies at the global centre of tropical marine biodiversity. The region supports a rapidly growing coastal population, and has rapidly deteriorating marine ecosystems with the likely imminent collapse of many of its coral reef-associated and pelagic fish populations. Unsustainable exploitation of living resources has caused severe environmental and socio-economic impacts across much of the region, and the major transboundary influence of the live food fish and aquarium trades, particularly poison fishing using cyanide, are further discussed. The causal chain analysis discusses the root causes of destructive fishing practices by investigating the cause-effect pathways of the issue. Policy options are analysed in order to enhance the management and improve the environmental quality of the region’s aquatic environment.