Oceans and Coastal Policy - Global Environment Outlook (GEO-6): Healthy Planet, Healthy People Chapter 14

United Nations Environment Programme (2019)

The impacts of human activities on the oceans have serious social and economic implications, which directly and indirectly affect human health and well-being. As noted in chapter 7 of this report, impacts of great concern include those associated with climate change, pollution and over shing. Coral bleaching is perhaps one of the most dramatic and immediate impacts of climate change on oceans in recent years; marine litter and plastic pollution are rising to the forefront of pollution issues; and the depletion of sh stocks from over shing remains critical. Drawing on selected policy typologies and related case studies, this chapter examines key approaches and instruments employed in response to these issues (Table 14 1).


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