Chapter 3. Phenology: Climate Change is Shifting the Rhythm of Nature - Frontiers 2022 Report: Emerging Issues of Environmental Concern

United Nations Environment Programme (2022-02)

Phenological mismatches have been detected through detailed studies on reproduction, pollination, survival and migration across a wide range of species (Renner and Zohner 2018; Ramaswami et al. 2019, Visser and Gienappe 2019). The reason for these differential shifts in response to climate change is that each organism is sensitive to different environmental drivers or shows different levels of sensitivity to a single environmental driver. These mismatches among consumers within a food web will affect individuals' reproduction and survival rates with eventual repercussions for populations and communities.

Chapters and Articles